Textbooks have traditionally been written to engender loyalty to the government and ruling ideology. Given the growing quality problems in the private sector, the MHRT in November 2018 announced that it would revoke the permits of some 1,000 private HEIs and gradually close and merge these institutions. For example, Indonesian children who lack access to physical schools can complete junior high school in open “radio schools.” In higher education, distance education was pioneered by the public Indonesia Open University (Universitas Terbuka), which evolved from a small fringe university when it was founded in 1984 to a mega-university of more than 500,000 students today. While the U.S. is still the second most popular destination for mobile Indonesian students, Indonesian enrollments in the U.S. have dropped significantly in recent years. This astonishing economic rise is partially based on demographic trends that will increase the country’s population to about 321 million. Lies and Mr. Tri Agus uneasy. The national medical curriculum includes an initial 3.5-year period of pre-clinical studies, followed by a two-year clinical phase and a mandatory one-year clinical internship after graduation. There were 10,646 Indonesian degree students in the country in 2016 compared with 10,148 in 2004. In this effort the government has received considerable support from the World Bank, United Nation agencies, foreign governments, and private foundations. Government spending on education > Proportion of GDP: Percentage of public funding for education out of country's total GDP. Students in religious schools specialize in religious subjects. The MHRT recently announced that the test will be given entirely in computer format beginning in 2019. Advanced schools or schools of higher learning are the most common form of Indonesian HEI. The majority of vocational schools specialize in the fields of technology and industry (86 percent) and business and management (76 percent). Australia and its neighbours benefit from aid program investments in education which support human development, economic growth and stability across the region. Whereas tuition in such state institutions is more affordable for average students than private-university tuition, faculty salaries are low by international standards. Given the rapid modernization of the country, the need for trained professionals in Indonesia has grown tremendously in recent years. Bandung Institute of Technology (Institut Teknologi Bandung) is the top technical university. Participation in upper-secondary education has grown briskly in general with the GER jumping from 69.5 percent to 80 percent between 2012 and 2017, according to UIS data. One of the most serious problems for graduates with advanced degrees, however, is finding employment suited to their newly acquired education. Indonesia also has the highest number of international schools in Southeast Asia. But the country is also attractive because of its cultural, religious, and linguistic similarities to Indonesia. However, about 52 percent of all non-teacher-training students enrolled in higher education were social sciences majors in the 2008–9 academic year, while only 3 percent majored in laboratory-intensive fields of study, largely because universities prefer to offer social science courses that do not require expensive laboratories and equipment. This large university-age population means that Indonesia has a substantial pool of potential international students. In 2015, the government also introduced a ranking system that classifies universities into four categories: platinum, gold, silver, and brown (the lowest category). Most recently, enrollments have declined by some 1 percent to 8,650 in 2017/18, a drop coinciding with the Trump administration’s travel ban, which restricts entry to the U.S. for citizens from seven countries—five of which are majority Muslim. But while enrollments at private HEIs are swelling, many private institutions are small providers with 500 students or less, so that public institutions enroll around 37 percent of all tertiary students. However, public education spending as a percentage of GDP has stagnated over the past decade and remains well below recommended levels for emerging economies (at 3.6 percent of GDP in 2015). The admissions test includes general subjects (mathematics, Indonesian, English), as well as subjects related to the intended area of concentration (for example, science subjects for STEM fields). However, legislation from 2005 made it mandatory for teachers to have a four-year university degree (Sarjana Pendidikan) or a Diploma 4 in education order to qualify for public professional teacher allowances. It lasts three years (grades 10 to 12) and is offered in different specialization streams in the general academic track. At that time, Suharto issued an order to set aside portions of oil revenues for the construction of new primary schools. It is important for the government to support the growth of this group in all fronts. Dragana Borenovic Dilas, Credential Examiner at WES, Christopher Mackie, Research Associate at WES, Ying Huang, Credential Examiner at WES, and Stefan Trines, Research Editor, WENR. While Vietnam and Malaysia, the two largest senders in the ASEAN, have outbound mobility ratios of 3.56 and 5.14 percent, only 0.57 percent of Indonesia’s tertiary students are studying abroad, the second-lowest percentage among all ASEAN member states after the Philippines. C. May/Shostal Associates. The countries are only separated by a few hundred kays. Higher education has suffered from a lecture-based system, poor laboratories, a shortage of adequate textbooks in Indonesian, and a poor level of English-language proficiency, which keeps many students from using such foreign textbooks as are available. When it was completed in 1962 to host the Asian Games it’s original capacity was 120,800 people, which would have made it the second largest today. The research output of Indonesian universities is growing rapidly, but it’s still low compared with that of other emerging economies. Compared with how the school system is administered, higher education is generally more centrally controlled. Educational quality is a pressing concern in Indonesian higher education. During 1997–98, the financial crisis affected the poorest families the most, resulting in their selectively cutting back on their education expenditures. The final credential is called Dokter (Doctor of Medicine). It has also grown rapidly since the middle of the 20th century: The number of senior secondary schools doubled from 67,000 in 1974 to more than 146,000 in 2011, while the number of HEIs tripled within just 17 years—from 1,236 in 1995 to 3,815 in 2012. This growth made Indonesia the third-largest sender of international students among ASEAN member states in 2017, behind only Vietnam (82,160) and Malaysia (64,187). Most HEIs have only very limited autonomy. The country is so expansive in its area covered that it has three time zones. The number of primary school students increased from 2 million in 1940 to 8 million in 1961 and the number of secondary school students increased from 25,500 to 700,000. The sovereign archipelago of Indonesia is on track to rapid urbanization; in fact, it is the largest country in Southeast Asia, the world’s third most populous democracy and is ranked 16th in GDP. In order to become civil servant teachers at public schools, candidates must now also fulfill more stringent certification requirements, including a set amount of teaching experience and passing scores on qualifying examinations. Despite being the world’s fourth-largest country in terms of population, Indonesia was only the 22nd-largest sender of international students worldwide in 2017, making up less than 1 percent of the more than 5 million students studying abroad that year. Public expenditures have since grown drastically, nearly tripling since the early 2000s. “Muslim schoolgirls now have to wear a jilbab,” Ms. Dewi said. Graduates receive the Ijazah SMK and a certificate of competency in their vocational specialization. But the ministry’s spokesman, Ibnu Hamad, says the central government does not have powers to intervene. Life expectancy is seven years lower than in Vietnam. [Source: Al-Jazeera], Curriculum and Religious Education in Indonesia. 20 percent in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and D, approximately 27 percent under the age of 15, ASEAN Qualifications Reference Framework (AQRF), Sunni Islam’s most prestigious university, recent depreciation of the Indonesian rupiah against the U.S. dollar, Times Higher Education World University Ranking, Education in the United States of America, Photocopy of the degree certificate (Diploma, Sarjana, Magister, Doktor)—submitted by the applicant, Academic Transcript—sent directly by the institution attended, For completed doctoral programs, an official letter confirming the conferral of the degree—sent directly by the institution, Magister Manajemen (Master of Management). Enrollments at upper-secondary private schools, on the other hand, decreased from 54 to 46 percent over the same time span, according to UIS data. Medical schools are university faculties, close to two-thirds of which are part of private universities. It should be pointed out, however, that it only includes students enrolled in tertiary degree programs. Education enables development and is crucial to helping people overcome poverty. SMK programs cover a general education core curriculum (including mathematics, Indonesian, English, natural sciences, social sciences, and so-called normative subjects like religious education and civics), as well as vocationally oriented subjects. Indonesian is the official language of instruction in the school system, although Indonesia’s various spoken languages may also be used at the local level in the first years of elementary education. Lower or junior secondary education lasts for three years (grades seven to nine) and concludes with the award of the certificate of completion of junior secondary school (sekolah menengah pertama, or SMP). In addition, there are Spesialis 2 programs for additional in-depth training in subspecialties. There are also still significant disparities between regions and districts—GERs in some districts were still as low as 30 percent at the beginning of this decade. More substantial efforts will be required to overcome structural weaknesses in Indonesia’s system and bring it up to the standards of other fast-developing countries in the dynamic ASEAN region. In 2010, only 2.5 percent of the poorest quintile of the Indonesian population was enrolled in bachelor’s programs compared with 65 percent from the wealthiest quintile. According to the most recent regulations, there are four test subjects taken in the UN: Indonesian, English, mathematics, and one elective subject from students’ respective specialization streams. While institutions admit a number of top students directly based on their high school records (an admissions process called Seleksi Nasional Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri—SNMPTN), a more common pathway is the allocation of students to HEIs based on a centralized, joint entrance examination conducted under the purview of the MHRT—a process referred to as Seleksi Bersama Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (SBMPTN). This institution enrolls about 37,000 students per year. There are several different types of HEIs, including universities, institutes, advanced schools, academies, polytechnics, and community academies. Here are 25 facts that you might not know about Indonesia… Fact 1) Jakarta’s Gelora Bung Karno Stadium is one of the largest stadium in the world. For more information, visit the WES website.  The number of degree-seeking students reported by UIS increased from 5,704 in 2007 to 8,038 in 2016, before leveling off to 5,823 students in 2017. As the World Bank’s Country Director for Indonesia Rodrigo A. Chaves has noted, the “middle class holds the key to unlocking the potential of Indonesia. This discrepancy is even more pronounced in the case of smaller countries like Singapore and Brunei, which have sky-high outbound mobility ratios of 12.92 and 30.99 percent respectively. These employment-geared programs can take from one year (D1) to four years of study (D4) to complete; the numbers 1 to 4 correspond to both the level of complexity and the nominal length of study (although programs may also be completed in more or less time). Even though student-to-teacher ratios in the private sector are lower than in the public sector, private madrasahs, for example, tend to have lower-qualified teachers and inadequate facilities. That’s a higher percentage than in poorer ASEAN countries like Cambodia and Myanmar, but significantly below levels in Thailand, Malaysia, or Vietnam, which spent 4.1 percent (2013), 4.8 percent (2016), and 5.65 percent (2013), respectively, of their GDPs on education. Angel Rabasa of Rand Corporation wrote: “In Indonesia, religious education in state-run schools is multi-religious. While Islamic education was long regarded as second rate, the rise of Islamic conservatism in Indonesia has led to an increase in Islamic education in public school curricula in recent years. Meanwhile, urbanization is accelerating rapidly, and internet penetration rates have increased by more than 20 percent between 2013 and 2016 alone.  These are Singapore (27.2 percent), Malaysia (8 percent), Brunei Darussalam (3.8 percent), Thailand (1.3 percent), Laos (0.4 percent), and Vietnam (0.24 percent). According to the MHRT, there were 573 universities in Indonesia as of 2018, more than 90 percent of them private. A 2014 World Bank Policy Brief found that despite a doubling of the number of workers who have at least some tertiary education between 2000 and 2010, still only 8 percent of workers possessed a tertiary degree, far short of the 21 percent demanded by the labor market. Questions or comments, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, Education, Health, Energy, Transportation - Education in Indonesia. Spending on tertiary education and research is particularly low with the MHRT receiving only 9 percent of all education allocations in 2018. WITH roughly 55m students, 3m teachers and more than 236,000 schools in 500 districts, Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest education system. The official age of entry is seven, but many pupils enter at the age of six. That said, this ratio remains far from the government’s goal of making senior secondary education universal for all Indonesian youth. From the late 1970s through the l990s, private schools and universities increased in number and quality and served diverse students (including Chinese Indonesians who were not accepted at government universities). About 87 percent of Indonesia’s population is Sunni Muslim, making Indonesia the largest majority Muslim country in the world. “We noticed that almost all of them wore jilbab as uniform,” Ms. Supolo said, referring to what Indonesians call the Islamic head scarf. Of these institutions, 3 percent were public, with 57.1 percent of the student enrollment, and 97 percent were private, with 42.9 of the student enrollment. Among these is the State Muslim University (UIN)—formerly called the State Institute for Islamic Religion (IAIN)—which has been an important venue for progressive debates about Islam. Together they enrolled approximately 11 percent of the total student population in 2013. Notably, five of the ten most popular institutions among Indonesian students are community colleges, with students at community colleges making up around 40 percent of all Indonesians applying for U.S. student visas. Elyazar, Simon I. Hay, and J. Kevin Baird, PMC Apr 13, 2011]. Learning outcomes, as measured by test results in the OECD PISA study, show that students at public schools are better prepared. Public spending on education as a percentage of government expenditure rose from 11.5 percent in 2001 to about 17 percent in 2010, according to the United Nations. While the number of Indonesian students in Malaysia has grown significantly over the past decade, despite fluctuations, it’s important to note that China is also surging in popularity as a study destination and may now attract more Indonesian students than Malaysia. This article is written based on keynote presentation of the first author, Ali Nugraha, in the 2011 International Early Childhood Studies Conference: Current Issues in Early Childhood, 11-12 July 2011, in Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung. Programs are a minimum of three years, but usually take longer to complete. How well the U.S. can compete with Australia, Malaysia, and, most recently, China in attracting Indonesian students remains to be seen. Mr. Tri Agus, a political communications lecturer at a rural-development college whose wife is Catholic, now sends his daughters to a private Catholic primary school. The Doktor is a research qualification that represents the highest academic credential in the Indonesian system. 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